Grand Solar Minimum (Climate Change)

Inuit Elders tell NASA Earth Axis Shifted

https://www.naturalnews.com/048906_Inuit_Elders_NASA_earth_axis.html
2015

(NaturalNews) The Inuit Tribe are indigenous people who live in the Canadian Arctic, Greenland, Siberia and Alaska. Their elders have written to the National Space and Aeronautics Administration (NASA) to tell them that the earth’s axis has shifted. The elders do not believe that carbon emissions from humans are causing the current climate changes.

The sky has changed, claim Inuit elders

The Inuit elders note climate change in the melting glaciers, deterioration of sealskin, and burns on seals, and disappearing sea ice. The attribute these changes in climate to changes in the sky.The tribal elders claim that the sun no longer rises where it used to rise. The days heat up more quickly and last longer. The stars and moon are also in different places in the sky and this affects the temperatures. This is a population that relies on the placement of the moon and stars for their survival as they live in total darkness during part of the year.

The elders say they can no longer predict the weather, as they have been able to in the past. They observe that warmer winds are changing the snow banks, making their ability to navigate overland more difficult. Polar bear populations are increasing, which causes the bears to wander into the Inuit neighborhoods.

What scientists report

On April 20, 2011, CNN News reported that an earthquake moved the main island of Japan by 8 feet and shifted the Earth on its axis. They quoted Kenneth Hudnut, a geophysicist with the U.S. Geological Survey, as saying, “At this point, we know that one GPS station moved (8 feet), and we have seen a map from GSI (Geospatial Information Authority) in Japan showing the pattern of shift over a large area is consistent with about that much shift of the land mass.”

They quoted the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Italy, that estimated that “the 8.9-magnitude quake shifted the planet on its axis by nearly 4 inches (10 centimeters).” Astronomers concur that there has not been a shift in the earth’s rotational axis, but that there have been subtle polar shifts over the last ten years. This is a change in what is called the figure axis.

These changes are caused by continental drift, which has been shifting the location of the North Pole towards the south about 10 cms per year for the last 100 years. Teams at the University of Texas using NASA’s GRACE satellite found that the North Pole’s normal drifting to the south changed in 2005 and since then, the drift has been eastward. They detected a 1.2 meter change from 2005 to 2013. They conclude that the shift is caused by climate change caused by global warming.

About the Inuit or Eskimo people

The Inuit people inhabit the far northern reaches of the Canadian Arctic and have done so for centuries. The area they inhabit is almost continually frozen under a layer of permafrost. For months at a time, their days begin and end in darkness. A nomadic people, they built tents or teepees of caribou skin in warmer months, and lived in igloos in the winter. Previously, they were known as Eskimo. The word Eskimo is from a word in their language that means “eater of raw meat.” This group of Arctic dwellers has now been renamed Inuit, a word that means “the people.” Inuk is the word to describe one member of the tribe, or “one person.” The Inuit speak many different dialects that all stem from the Eskimaleut or Inuit-Aleut language. They are primarily hunters, relying on Arctic wildlife for their survival. They fish, hunt sea mammals, such as seals and walrus, and land mammals, like Arctic hare and caribou and use seal skin and blubber for clothing, tents, and fuel. Most of their diet is made up of raw meat as there is very little plant life in their environment.

Solar Minimum Approaching | A Mini Ice Age?

https://www.almanac.com/solar-minimum-approaching-mini-ice-age
Q3 2023

Sunspots are disappearing more rapidly than usual as the Sun prepares to enter the solar minimum. The last time the absence of sunspots was so prolonged was the “Little Ice Age,” which happened back in the 1600s. Will Earth experience another cold snap?

First, understand that the Sun normally follows sunspot cycles of roughly 11 years. Think of sunspots as storms on the Sun.

The cycle starts out hot with a “solar maximum” littered with solar storms and sunspots; then the temperature cools and we enter a “solar minimum” with a decrease in sunspots. Then the cycle begins again. However:

    The current cycle 24 (which began in 2008—two years late) has been very strange. Its “maximum” in 2014 was the lowest sunspot peak since the early 1800s. That was followed by years of decreased sunspots until now, this past year, when we’ve gone weeks at a time without a single spot on the Sun’s face.
    
    The prior cycle 23 also had an extended period of very few sunspots compared to any cycle this past century.
    
How Does the Sun Affect Earth’s Climate?

This affects us because Earth’s climate gets cooler when there are fewer solar storms. The extreme example happened between 1645 and 1715 when the normal 11-year sunspot cycle vanished. This period, called the Maunder Minimum, was accompanied by bitterly cold winters in the American colonies. Fishing settlements in Iceland and Greenland were abandoned. Icebergs were seen near the English channel. The canals of Venice froze. It was a time of great hardship.

No one understands why the 11-year sunspot cycle could simply stop for a full human lifetime. (Back then, it strangely coincided with the rule of the French “Sun King,” Louis XIV). There’s no way to know if we’re really currently on the cusp of a repeat performance.

But if this strange recent solar activity means that another Maunder Minimum is nearly upon us, as a few solar researchers believe, the global cooling would be mitigating Earth’s warming at the best possible time.

However, if we do have a “Maunder Minimum,” it would not be a return to the “Little Ice Age.” Solar radiation expert Judith Lean, PhD, of the Naval Research Laboratory points to a current global surface temperature that’s about 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit, warmer than at the time of the Maunder Minimum and says that a return to a Maunder Minimum phenomenon would lead to a cooling by only one-tenth of a degree C or 0.18 degree F.

We’ll have to wait and see.

Mini Ice Age to hit Earth in 2020 and last 30 years, causing extreme winters

https://newslanded.com/2020/02/04/mini-ice-age-2020-solar-minimum/
Q2 2020

“Winter is coming”

The Sun is going to experience its lowest activity in over 200 years in 2020. During this time, Earth will enter a “mini ice age” where there will be food shortage and extremely cold winters. The average temperature could even drop as much as one degree Celsius in one year. According to the data from NASA, this is because the Earth is about to experience a “solar minimum.”

What are solar minimums?

A solar minimum is a period of time when the Sun becomes dormant, exhibiting its lowest solar activity. This is a normal phenomenon that usually occurs once every 11 years. However, the solar minimum that we are going to experience this year is called a “Grand Solar Minimum.” This is an extreme solar minimum where solar activity is much lower than regular solar minimums. Grand Solar Minimums occur about once every 400 years.

The last Grand Solar Minimum, the Maunder Minimum, was between 1645 and 1715. During this time, the canals at Thames and Amsterdam froze over multiple times, a rare occurrence today.

Professor Zharkova, a scientist that has published numerous papers on solar minimums, told The Sun that “the reduction in temperature will results in cold weathers on Earth, wet and cold summers, cold and wet winters.” She also mentioned unusually cold temperatures in Canada and Iceland as evidence that the effects of the Grand Solar Minimum are beginning. She continues to say that if the mini ice age turns out to be similar to the Maunder Minimum, we could experience mass food shortages as the agricultural industry will be severely affected.

Global Warming vs Grand Solar Minimum

Is Earth facing a global warming crisis or mini ice age? According to Professor Owens of Reading University, “The small reduction in the Sun’s energy associated with a solar minimum is vastly offset by effects caused by human activity, such as CO2 in the atmosphere.” He also told The Sun that it is unlikely that global climate will be affected in a detectable way. The effects Maunder Minimum was also influenced by multiple large-scale volcanic eruptions that brought down the temperatures. The Grand Solar Minimum was not the only factor affecting global climate during that time.

Study: Modern Grand Solar Minimum (2020 – 2053) leads to cooling, important implications for entire planet

https://watchers.news/2020/09/02/zharkova-study-modern-grand-solar-minimum-2020-2053/
Q3 2020

In a new study published recently in the journal Temperature, Prof. Valentina Zharkova demonstrates that the Sun has entered into the modern Grand Solar Minimum (2020 – 2053) that will lead to a significant reduction of the solar magnetic field…

“Sun is the main source of energy for all planets of the solar system,” Prof. Zharkova states. “This energy is delivered to Earth in a form of solar radiation in different wavelengths, called total solar irradiance. Variations of solar irradiance lead to heating of upper planetary atmosphere and complex processes of solar energy transport toward a planetary surface.”

Zharkova demonstrates that recent progress with the understanding of the role of solar background magnetic field in defining solar activity and with quantifying the observed magnitudes of the magnetic field at different times enabled reliable long-term prediction of solar activity on a millennium timescale.

“During these grand solar minima, there is a significant reduction of the solar magnetic field and solar irradiance, which impose the reduction of terrestrial temperatures derived for these periods from the analysis of terrestrial biomass during the past 12 000 or more years.”

The most recent grand solar minimum occurred during the Maunder Minimum — which lasted 65 years, from 1645 to 1710.

During this period, the temperatures across much of the northern hemisphere plunged. This likely occurred because the total solar irradiance was reduced by 0.22% that led to a decrease of the average terrestrial temperature measured mainly in the northern hemisphere in Europe by 1.0 – 1.5 °C (1.8 – 2.7 °F). This seemingly small decrease in the average temperature in the northern hemisphere led to frozen rivers, cold long winters, and cold summers.

“The discovery of double dynamo action in the Sun brought us a timely warning about the upcoming grand solar minimum when solar magnetic field and its magnetic activity will be reduced by 70%.

Magnetic Pole Shift + Low Solar Activity: “A Global Environmental Crisis” Has Begun

https://electroverse.co/pole-shift-and-low-solar-activity-global-environmental-crisis/
Q3 2022

Recently, even the mainstream media has awoken to the “cataclysmic” threat that a combo of low solar activity plus a weakening magnetic field poses to life on earth — even the Guardian:

The flipping of the Earth’s magnetic poles together with a drop in solar activity 42,000 years ago could have generated an apocalyptic environment that lead to the extinction of megafauna and to the end of the Neanderthals, they report, citing a paper published in the journal Science, co-authored by Professor Chris Turney of the University of New South Wales.

The new paper, entitled “a global environmental crisis“, discusses the temporary flip of the poles 42,000-or-so years ago, an event known as the Laschamp excursion, which lasted for about 1,000 years.

The Guardian article continues:

Previous work found little evidence that the event had a profound impact on the planet, possibly because the focus had not been on the period during which the poles were actually shifting. Now scientists say the flip, together with a period of low solar activity, could have been behind a vast array of climatic and environmental phenomena with dramatic ramifications.

“It probably would have seemed like the end of days,” said Turney.

The MSM, as you’d expect, fails to draw any comparisons with the events of today, and not one legacy media article attempts to give their readers a fuller understanding of the story.

The Laschamp excursion was just one of many in ‘recent’ times, with these magnetic excursions (not full-blown reversals) appearing to hit approximately every 12,000 years:


Years AgoMagnetic ExcursionIce EventExtinctions
~12,000GothenburgYounger DryasGlobal Disaster
~24,000Lake MungoHeinrich 2Eurasia
~35-37,000Mono LakeHeinrich 4N. America
~40-47,000LaschampHeinrich 5Global Disaster
~60,000Vostok/GreenlandHeinrich 6Australia
~72,000TobaHeinrich 7aGlobal Disaster

And yes, you concluded correctly — we’re due another.

In fact, the evidence suggests it’s actually already begun — that’s why all this matters.

Every 12,000 years-or-there-abouts, our planet suffers a magnetic excursion during which its north and south magnetic poles ‘wander’ and eventually ‘flip’. This process results in a waning of Earth’s magnetosphere (its magnetic field) which, in turn –and on every prior occasion, though to varying degrees– fuels serious climatic events and mid-level extinction events on the ground.

The devastation of these events is truly “cataclysmic”–nothing about them is hyperbole, unlike the many modern cries of wolf.

These apocalyptic proceedings result in far more than a bout of extreme ‘climate change’, too, for they also bombard the lower atmosphere with cosmic energy as our shield against the Sun goes down, which, as well as exposing all living organisms to dangerous levels of radiation, also sees cosmic rays penetrate the mantle ‘activating’ silica-rich magma–impacting its viscosity and sending volcanoes a-popping (resulting in global cooling: triple-whammy).

We’ve seen accelerated magnetic field loss in recent years–driven by our wandering poles (as visualized above). This is a key indication that the excursion could be ‘winding up’ and that the poles are readying to ‘flip’.

In the mid-1800s, after millennia of stability, the field began waning, and has been doing so ever-since. Accelerated losses were officially reported as 10% in the year 2000, and then, just a decade later, we were at 15%. The accelerations noted in 2015 and 2017 were only announced to the public in 2020 and 2021 and had detected “significant shifts” in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA).

[The SAA is an area where Earth’s inner Van Allen radiation belt comes closest to Earth’s surface. This leads to an increased flux of energetic particles in this region exposing it to higher-than-usual levels of radiation.]

https://i0.wp.com/electroverse.net/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/SAA_2020.png?ssl=1

Earth is indeed due its next “climatic and environmental disaster”, so the cardboard-coffee-cup supping ‘blue-haired freaks’ among us have that correct. Where these unknowing pawns go hopelessly wrong, however, is in believing that said “catastrophe” is unnatural and that drastic, poverty-inducing policies, such as energy restrictions and carbon taxes, will nip it in the bud. All these malevolent actions will achieve, though, is extend the human suffering, as we’re seeing now, most clearly in Europe.

Cataclysms, débâcles and upheavals are, unfortunately, what magnetic excursions/reversals (coupled with bouts of low solar activity) do. These cyclic events blanch the planet of life and set things up anew. You might look at them as ‘The true Great Reset’.

**The Next Grand Solar Minimum, Cosmic Rays and Earth Changes**

https://bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia3/ciencia_sol108.htm
2018

What to expect in a Grand Solar Minimum.

    How does an increase in galactic cosmic rays affect the Earth’s climate and also tectonic activity?

Here is a simplified description of the basic mechanism:

    A solar maximum is the period within the 11-year solar cycle of high solar magnetic field and high sunspot count. Sunspots are highly magnetic and visually dark spots or ‘holes’ in the photosphere of the sun, where solar flares can erupt.

    A solar minimum is the low activity trough of the 11-year solar cycle (Schwabe Cycle).

A Grand Solar Minimum is a period of several successive very low Schwabe Cycles, usually coinciding with phases of climate disruption and – in the long run – cooling…

An example is the Maunder Minimum (c. 1645 and 1715) that coincided with the coldest phase of the Little Ice Age. The Little Ice Age, from which we have been emerging since c. 1850, was the coldest period of at least the last 8,000 years, possibly the entire Holocene.

Grand Solar Minima recur in clusters roughly every 200-400 years.

27 Grand Minima have been identified during the Holocene (Usoskin et al. 2007). Thus, we were in Grand Solar Minimum about 1/6 of the total time.

The sun emits a magnetic field through the solar wind (flow of charged particles) that reaches as far as the outer planets, this region of the sun’s influence is called the heliosphere.

1 – Solar Maximum

During Solar Maximum – when sunspot count is high – a stronger solar magnetic field and solar wind block more cosmic rays from the solar system and this prevents them from entering the Earth’s magnetosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere (Fig. 1).

 Cosmic rays are highly energetic atomic nuclei or other particles (e.g. protons) traveling through space at a speed approaching that of light, thus the term “rays” is technically misleading since they themselves don’t constitute electromagnetic radiation.

When cosmic rays enter Earth’s atmosphere, they disintegrate in a cascade into subatomic particles, which act as cloud (-condensation) nuclei by ionization and thus instigate low level cloud formation (cloud seeding).  

See: NEW STUDY – Cosmic Rays, Solar activity have much greater impact on Earth’s climate than models suggest.

Cosmic rays are accelerated by distant supernovae and other violent events in the cosmos.

The cosmic rays we are primarily concerned with here in the context of solar cycles are called galactic cosmic rays – high energy particles from outside the solar system, but recent studies have shown that many of them originate outside of our Milky Way galaxy and thus are actually inter-galactic cosmic rays.

The Sun itself also emits cosmic rays (solar cosmic rays), but these are of lower energy density and thus have less effect on Earth.

So, when a quieter sun during solar minimum emits less solar cosmic rays, this does not counterbalance the cloud seeding effect of the increased galactic cosmic rays.

In addition, in solar maximum, the strong solar magnetic field not only blocks out more cosmic rays, but also more of the electromagnetic radiation from space, such as harmful gamma-, X-rays and UVC.

During a said succession of several strong 11-year-cycles (Schwabe) cycles – a Grand Solar Maximum – we see a more benign and stable climate, less variability in precipitation/ wind and a trend of general warming, as in the Roman Warm Period, the Medieval Climate Optimum and the recent Modern Grand Solar Maximum between the 1940s and c. 2000, when the level of activity was high, exceeding 100 in the peak sunspot number. (Usoskin et al. 2003).

 So, it is not as simple as:

    “a more active sun emits more heat and thus ‘warms’ the planet more than an inactive sun” by more Total Solar Irradiance.

This simplification often gets construed by the proponents of the theory of anthropogenic (man made) climate change, when they argue the variability in solar activity could affect climate only minimally.

As far as temperature is concerned, what is crucial is not the energy that leaves the sun, but how much of this energy is blocked by clouds and how much reaches the Earth’s surface and how much is reflected back into space by ice and snow.

TSI is a good indicator for climate, but it is part of the effect, rather than the main cause.

 It has been textbook knowledge that saturating the air (100% relative humidity) is not always enough to form a cloud or droplet.

    “The water vapor molecules need a site to condense on. This site is called a Condensation Nucleus and the process referred to as heterogeneous nucleation.

    Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are about 1 micron in size.”

In a groundbreaking study of Dec, 2017, Professor Svensmark stated, it had until now wrongly been assumed that small additional nucleated aerosols would not grow and become cloud condensation nuclei, since no mechanism was known to achieve this.

“The new thing is that there exists an amplification mechanism that is operating on clouds in the atmosphere”.

“Quantifying the impact of solar activity on climate from observations is found to be 5-7 times larger than from solar irradiance, and agrees with empirical variations in cosmic rays and clouds.”

“This can therefore also explain why climate over the last 10,000 years correlates with solar activity. “

What’s important is the connection of solar activity, cloud seeding, and in the long run, snow cover, “whitening”.

In the c. 200 years cycles of Grand Solar Minima, Solar Maxima are the warm and but wetter “solar seasons” of a generally benign climate.

2 – Solar Minimum

During a solar minimum – and particularly – in a Grand Solar Minimum, more cosmic rays enter Earth’s atmosphere.

Here, these high velocity particles (mostly protons) collide with atmospheric atoms and dissociate in a cascading mode into smaller subatomic particles.

These particles act as cloud nuclei by ionization and propagate low level cloud formation.

Some particles may reach the Earth’s surface and even penetrate it. In this way, more cosmic rays accelerate storm formation, erratic rainfall, snowstorms, hail, local flooding, and in the long run – global cooling. (Fig. 2).

We add to this:

        Earthquakes

        volcanoes

        lightning,

…and other electric events and an enhanced risk for a solar flare that can disrupt our power grid.

But – somewhat counter intuitively – Grand Solar Minima, the cooler phases, are historically prone to drought and, due to jet stream disturbances, also singular heat waves and wild fires increase (see flooding and drought, below).

It is primarily the climate instabilities and erratic weather, rather than the actual drop in temperature, that initially disrupts agriculture and civilization.

During the Little Ice Age, temperatures across the Northern Hemisphere arguably declined by only 0.6°C (1.1°F) relative to the average temperature between 1000 and 2000 CE (according to Encyclopedia Britannica), but frost and snow events and crop failures were devastating.

A “normal” Grand Solar Minimum initially manifests not so much as a “Mini Ice Age” but could more appropriately be called a “Bad Weather Age” with climate extremes.

Inversely, solar maxim do not directly ensure warm climate.

For instance, in the solar activity high in around 1600 the climate stabilized to some extent, but temperatures remained very low, this was at the bottom of the Little Ice Age. (See figure 4).

Even when – in a given year – average temperatures are only slightly below normal or even average, all that is needed is one unseasonal late snowfall or hailstorm to ruin crops for a season (as happened in France and Midwest USA in spring 2016 and 2017).

These anomalies, (including earthquakes and volcanoes; see below) can be expected to increase generally along the usual risk zones for natural disasters (see global map).

As a generalization, it can be said for any given region: Expect more of the same. Plus, in the long run: overall cooling and droughts.

For the current trend of decline into a solar minimum, since Earth’s magnetic field is also weakening, and thus entering space radiation (e.g. solar UV radiation) is increasing, the jury is still out on overall long-term temperature changes for the coming cycles. (see also 3.2).

During Solar Minimum, not only are there less sunspots, but these are also concentrated at the solar equator, whereas in solar maximum, they also appear in the range of the 30-50° latitudes.

Also, the 11-year (Schwabe) (Cycles) can be elongated up to 22 years.

Summary of the feedback loop of climate downturn in a Grand Solar Minimum:

        Weak Solar Magnetic field (weak Solar Wind)

        More cosmic ray influx from space

        Ionization of atmospheric molecules –Cloud nucleation

        More cloud formation and erratic precipitation. Long-term cooling

        More clouds reflect solar radiation

        More snow and Ice reflect solar radiation – more long-term cooling.

A Grand Solar Minimum – as a succession of several very low solar cycles – occurs  approx. every 200 years.

The last notable one was the Dalton Minimum c. 1790-1820, which was followed by the end of the Little Ice Age, the 2nd Industrial Revolution, population expansion and the beginning of the modern global warming trend (which began c. 1850 and lasted until c. 2000).

2.1 –  Flooding and Droughts

In a Grand Solar Minimum, cosmic rays trigger larger flash floods, hailstorms and – due to jet stream disturbance and mixing of atmospheric layers –  local long-duration precipitation events (e.g. atmospheric rivers).

At the same time as the increased local flooding events occur, more cloud cover and less sea surface water heating means less evaporation of sea water, specific humidity is reduced, overall rainfall amounts are reduced, despite regional precipitation records and flooding.

In general, water tends to remain in the cloud cover for longer durations.

When clouds are rained out, this happens more violently, whereas the regular transport into the continents is diminished. As a result, in many areas, droughts are historically more prevalent during Grand Solar Minima.

This can then be marketed as the result of “Global Warming”, implying man-made global warming, of course.

Even though there has been no global warming since 2000. So, due to the shifting jet streams and changing wind patterns, singular heat waves and more wild fires are expected.

During the coldest period of the Maunder Minimum, Alaska and the North Atlantic were even warmer than normal.

High solar activity correlates  well with high specific humidity in the atmosphere (see Fig. 3) So, in a solar maximum, less cosmic rays means less clouds, more sunshine, but more water vapor in the atmosphere.

Water vapor itself (gas, not condensed droplets) is a greenhouse gas 10x more effective than CO2, thus another feedback mechanism towards warming and stable weather is generated during solar maximum.

In addition to the general higher humidity, fair weather means more difference between day and night temperature, also amounting to more dew formation.

What this means for agriculture and civilization itself:

In a Grand Minimum, lower specific humidity at the same temperature means lower relative humidity, which means less dew formation to nourish grass plants, most of these plants can sustain themselves from dew during extended rain-free periods on dry top soil, whereas most of the more complex cultural plants require ground moisture from regular rainfall or irrigation.

Increased winds further accelerate soil drying.

Dew forms on leave surfaces with the aid of microscopic particles on the leaves – which serve as condensation nuclei – at night, when temperatures are low and thus relative humidity is high, after which grass is wet in the morning.

The condensed water droplets are then absorbed through the leaves or roots. Porous soil also absorbs minute amounts of dew.

Not only is animal husbandry based on grass growth, but cereals, e.g. wheat, rye etc. are grass plants that can live on dew for extended periods of time, thus the related food production can be devastated by lower humidity alone, without a decrease in rainfall.

So, in Grand Solar Minimum, local droughts and crop failure can be caused not only by less rain and more winds, but simply by lower specific humidity.

This may not even show up on climate records (temperature and precipitation).

Such droughts will most likely be misinterpreted as drought from warming and evaporation.

Droughts in frigid climates lead to more sublimation of snow than is replenished by snowfall (evaporation of ice).

Thus, glaciers may disappear from the top down, in continuous sub-zero temperatures, this can then be marketed as “melting” due to warming (as for instance on the peak of Kilimanjaro).

in Antarctica, there are snow-free rock deserts known as “Antarctic Oasis”  also in constant sub-zero temperatures.

2.2 –  UV Radiation

Crop damage, local surface heating, wildfires and biological damage can all be accelerated by an increase in UV radiation, by the following mechanisms:

        There is a direct correlation of cosmic rays and ozone depletion. measured since 1980. Ozone depletion – as in solar minimum – means more harmful UV-B and C reach Earth’s surface.  

        A Study from 1980–2007 – covering two full 11-yr cosmic ray (CR) cycles – clearly shows the correlation between CRs and ozone depletion, especially the polar ozone loss (ozone hole) over Antarctica.

        The ongoing reduction in geomagnetic field strength lets in more cosmic rays from space and also more UV radiation from the sun. (see below).

        Earth’s thermosphere, in the upper atmosphere, is heated mainly by EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet) waves from the Sun.

2.3 –  Earthquakes and Volcanoes

As a further complication in a Grand Solar Minimum, cosmic rays that make it to Earth and enter the surface, can trigger earthquakes and volcanoes and other tectonic anomalies.

The penetrating particles (cosmic ray muons) from space decrease the viscosity of silica-rich magma. See, “Explosive volcanic eruptions triggered by cosmic rays – Volcano as a bubble chamber.”

As a consequence of these eruptions, increased amounts of volcanic aerosols and gases can generate global dimming and further cloud nucleation, leading to more cooling and crop failure, another feedback mechanism.

So, when you read a news story that says:

    “Volcano triggered ancient ice age”, it usually leaves out that previous known cold periods took place during solar minima, and also that the biggest accumulation of eruptions also take place at the beginning of the decline into a Grand Solar Minimum.

Cause and effect become construed.

In recent history, the largest duration of cooling that was attributed to an isolated volcanic eruption was only 1 year (the year without summer in 1815, Tambora).

And that was also at the end of the Dalton Minimum (c. 1790-1820).

See also the paper, Cosmic-solar radiation as the cause of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions:

    “Fluctuations of cosmic-solar radiations are charging the ionosphere.

    That results in anomalies of geomagnetic field which causes the generation of Eddy current. The Eddy current heats the rocks in the faults and consequently the shear resistant intensity and the static friction limit of the rocks would decrease.

    This is the main process that triggers earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.”

Here, as well, the usual risk zones are considered.

2.4 –  Ocean warming

As volcanic activity increases, this also affects underwater volcanoes. 2/3 of all volcanoes are underwater and erupt mostly unnoticed.

This is most likely why the floating sea ice of the Arctic had (officially) been shrinking until recent years, while the land locked Antarctic ice was growing.

In 2015, we learned that “Heat From Deep Ocean Fault Punches Hole in Arctic Ice Sheet”. By now, also Antarctic ice shelves are affected by heat from below,  in 2017, scientists “discover 91 volcanoes below Antarctic ice sheet”.

Update 1-29-2018 the phenomenon is now also observed in Greenland: PUZZLING HEAT FROM DEEP INSIDE THE EARTH IS MELTING GREENLAND’S GLACIERS.

2.5 –  Lightning

Cosmic rays reveal the secrets of thunderstorms.

Scott et al, 2014 suggest that the solar wind controls lightning on Earth:

    “increase in Galactic Cosmic Ray flux may directly trigger lightning through ‘runaway breakdown’ of electrons, leading to breakdown.”

2.6 – Historical discussions of solar activity and climate

Sir William Herschel was the first to seriously consider solar fluctuation as a source of climate change.

In 1801, he noted the correlation of low sunspot cycles (Grand Solar Minima) and weather worsening (using proxies such as wheat prices and crop failure.)

    “”The result of this review of the foregoing five periods is, that, from the price of wheat, it seems probable that some temporary scarcity or defect of vegetation has generally taken place, when the sun has been without those appearances which we surmise to be symptoms of a copious emission of light and heat.”
    Sir William Herschel, Phil. Trans. Royal Society. London, 91, 265 (1801)

The progression of visible sunspots can be observed with a simple telescope or binoculars, in order to get a rough picture of the state of our sun (see below).

The next two contributors to increased space energy on Earth require sophisticated instruments.

     Social/political developments – Grand Solar Minimum = Age of Peace

 It may be counterintuitive:

        Grand Solar Maxima, with a stable and more favorable climate – are also periods of increased mass excitability, war and genocide.

        In fact, throughout the last millennium, there were 4.6 times as many deaths from war, genocide and persecution during Grand Solar Maxima than there were in Grand Solar Minimum.

        In contrast, Grand Solar Minima – the ‘bad-weather periods’ – were times of relative peace, reason and of improvements of human rights.

    In the 1920s, the Russian scientist Alexander Tchijevsky discovered that social excitability, wars and rebellions unfolded primarily at the peaks of the 11-year solar cycles (Schwabe-cycles).

    I found that within the past 1000 years, what is true for the 11-years cycles, also applies to the non-periodical cycles of Grand Solar Minima and Maxima, recurring roughly every 200 years.

    The correlation between war deaths and grand maximum is r= 0.9 (very high correlation).

    Solar History: Ebook and paperback available here.

3.1  –  Weakening Earth’s magnetic field

Earth’s magnetic field has a similar function as the Sun’s magnetic field. It shields us from incoming cosmic rays and harmful electromagnetic radiation (such as UV B-C and gamma rays).

Earth’s magnetic poles are moving towards each other, at the same time Earth’s magnetic field is weakening, both phenomena are taking place at an accelerated pace.

It’s beyond this text how exactly the Sun’s and the Earth’s magnetic fields are causally related.

The following numbers are from magneticreversal.org:

    Since the mid 1800s until 2000 – in about 150 years – the Earth’s magnetic field had weakened by 10%. Then, from 2000 to 2010, it weakened another 5 %, an exponential decline.

    In 2015, ESA’s SWARM mission, measuring the magnetic field, concluded that both trends of acceleration are continuing, but they assume that this will not be a problem in the near future.

Around 1900, the North Pole was moving only a few kilometers per year. Today, the North Pole is moving 80km per year and rushing towards Siberia.

As we see, the two phenomena are proceeding hand in hand.

And the period of modern global warming was strongly correlated with the very strong solar activity about 1850-2000, peaking in 1950-2000.

In this period, solar magnetic field – blocking out cosmic rays – was not only strongest in the last 400-year-long cycle, but it was the strongest in the last 11,000 years.

That is roughly the time span of the current Holocene (our current interglacial warm period, which followed the abrupt end of the Younger Dryas cooling period).

Here it is important to note that during the Maunder Minimum, the geomagnetic field was much stronger than today, and this was able to buffer some of the harmful effects of the weak solar activity and the increased cosmic rays.

In fact, Earth’s magnetic field was relatively strong throughout the last 3000 years. Thus, also in regards to this current combination, we are entering unchartered territory in terms of incoming space energy.

During past Grand Minima, also aurora displays were rare, even the observed side of the Sun’s halo during total eclipse is smaller.

Thus, we either simply have more erratic weather and cooling due to cosmic ray influx as in past Grand Minima, OR some of the cooling is counterbalanced by an increase of entering electromagnetic radiation, primarily UV – which can heat the atmosphere – unlike during previous minima of the last 3 millennia.

At any rate, influx of harmful electromagnetic radiation (UV B-C and gamma rays) is increasing with the weakening Earth’s magnetic field.

Power grid disruption and solar storms

Although there are on average less severe solar storms and flairs during Grand Minima, the ones that do erupt can create greater damage to our power grid.

Our modern day electronic age has not been tested by a strong solar flare or Carrington type solar storm.

During the Maunder Minimum, solar activity was very weak, but Earth’s magnetic field was still strong and was thus able to shield us from some of the effects of solar storms and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME).

Later, in 1859, although occurring during a short peak in solar activity, the Carrington Solar Storm disrupted the global telegraph net involving short circuits and ground induced currents.

With today’s reduced Earth’s magnetic field we are in unchartered territory also in regards to technology. On the bright side, it can be added that the telegraph grid of 1859 was not adapted to solar storms at all, with insufficient or no grounding, so the direct comparison is flawed.

Back in 2004, a group of researchers from IBM measured the flux of neutrons from cosmic ray collisions and used their results to predict the error rate in computer memories another electronic logic devices.

Their predictions closely matched the observed rate of error, suggesting that neutrons are indeed an important source of problems in computing.

3.2 The local Bubble

Our movement in the galaxy involves long term changes with their effects hard to predict.

The following is again mainly from a narration in “Where are we going” by Suspicious Observers, who refer to this as our 3rd collapsing shield. This change involves the movement of our entire solar system in our arm of the Milky Way galaxy.

Our system is moving out of a zone of higher density of gases and dust – the Local Cloud – into a “void” area, the Local Bubble that was created by numerous supernovae, a zone in which the density of magnetized hydrogen is 6 times less than in our current environment.

The magnetized hydrogen in the Local Cloud also protects us from cosmic rays and harmful electromagnetic radiation.

The process of exiting takes place within the next centuries, therefore it’s a gradual process, but it has started already and it must be assumed that the further we proceed into this void, the greater the effects of future Grand Solar Minima will be on Earth.

It is not clear how our position in the local cloud is connected to Earth’s and to the Sun’s magnetic field progression.

But a progression of the observed trends of all three parameters will expose us to more space energy and particularly, cosmic rays.

4 – Cosmic Rays

The ongoing increase in cosmic rays and the next Grand Solar Minimum

Update 5.29. 2019: The next Grand Solar Minimum has (very likely) begun: NASA predicts lowest solar cycle in 200 years

(cont’d in PDF below or link above)

Grand Solar Minimum and Climate Variables

https://www.thegrandsolarminimum.com/

Solar Cycles, Grand Solar Cycles & Super Grand Cycles – Getting Started w GSM

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WtynrZi8B7E
2020

Intro to Grand Solar Minimum

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KAmubBDcaeg
2020

The Approaching New Grand Solar Minimum and Little Ice Age Climate Conditions – Nils-Axel Mörner Paleogeophysics & Geodynamics

https://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=61284

Abstract

By about 2030-2040, the Sun will experience a new grand solar minimum. This is evident from multiple studies of quite different characteristics: the phasing of sunspot cycles, the cyclic observations of North Atlantic behaviour over the past millennium, the cyclic pattern of cosmogenic radionuclides in natural terrestrial archives, the motions of the Sun with respect to the centre of mass, the planetary spin-orbit coupling, the planetary conjunction history and the general planetary-solar-terrestrial interaction. During the previous grand solar minima—i.e. the Spörer Minimum (ca 1440-1460), the Maunder Minimum (ca 1687-1703) and the Dalton Minimum (ca 1809- 1821)—the climatic conditions deteriorated into Little Ice Age periods.

1. Introduction

The solar activity exhibits a fairly regular alternation between solar maxima and solar minima (e.g. [1] [2]). The grand solar minima known as the Spörer Minimum (ca 1440-1460), the Maunder Minimum (ca 1687-1703) and the Dalton Minimum (ca 1809-1821) are all well known, not least because they correspond quite well with cold periods known as “Little Ice Ages” [3]-[5].

In the period 1997-2003, I chaired an INTAS project on Geomagnetism & Climate; we concluded that we, in the middle of the 21st century, had to be back in a new solar minimum with Little Ice Age climatic conditions [6] [7].

Several authors have made similar observations and claims [5]-[31].

Several of the papers in the Special Issue of PRP [1] addressed the question of an approaching new Solar Minimum. The conclusions [21] were quite straightforward: Obviously we are on our way into a new grand so-ar minimum. This sheds serious doubts on the issue of a continued, even accelerated, warming as proposed by the IPCC project.

This quite innocent—and very true—conclusion [21] made the publisher take the quite remarkable step to close down the entire scientific journal [32].

This closing down gave rise to turbulence and objections within the scientific community [31] [33]-[39]. It even became the incitement to a new book [2].

In this paper, I will review some of the leading facts for the proposition of an approaching Grand Solar Minimum and a related climatic deterioration of Little Ice Age type, in analogy with what happened during the last three solar minima, viz. the Dalton, Maunder and Spörer Minima.

[5] – [31]

[5] Morner, N.-A. (2010) Solar Minima, Earth’s Rotation and Little Ice Ages in the Past and in the Future. The North Atlantic-European Case. Global Planetary Change, 72, 282-293.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2010.01.004
[6] Morner, N.-A., Nevanlinna, H., Dergachev, V., Shumilov, O., Raspopov, O., Abrahamsen, N., Pilipenko, O., Trubikhin, V. and Gooskova, E. (2013) Geomagnetism and Climate V: General Conclusions. EGS-AGU-EGU, Nice, Abstracts CL2.08.
[7] Morner, N.A., Nenanlinna, H. and Shumilov, O. (2013) Past Climate Changes, Origin And Predictions. EGS-AGU-EGU, Nice, Abstracts CL2.07.
[8] Landscheidt, T. (2003) New Little Ice Age Instead of Global Warming. Energy and Environment, 14, 327-350.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1260/095830503765184646
[9] Morner, N.-A. (2006) 2500 Years of Observations, Deductions, Models and Geoethics. Bollettino della Società Geologica Italiana, 125, 259-264.
[10] Charvátová, I. (2009) Long-Term Predictive Assessments of Solar and Geomagnetic Activities Made on the Basis of the Close Similarity between the Solar Inertial Motions in the Intervals 1840-1905 and 1980-2045. New Astronomy, 14, 25-30.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.newast.2008.04.005
[11] Morner, N.-A. (2011) Arctic Environment by the Middle of This Century. Energy & Environment, 22, 207-218.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1260/0958-305X.22.3.207
[12] D’Aleo, J. (2011) Chapter 10: Solar Changes and Climate. In: Easterbrook, D.J., Ed., Evidence-Based Climate Science, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 253-276.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-385956-3.10010-5
[13] Archibald, D. (2011) Chapter 11: The Current Solar Minimum and Its Consequences for Climate. In: Easterbrook, D.J., Ed., Evidence-Based Climate Science, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 277-287.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-385956-3.10011-7
[14] Casey, J.L. (2011) Cold Sun: A Dangerous “Hiber-nation” of the Sun Has Begun. Trafford Publishing, Bloomington.
[15] Scafetta, N. (2012) Multi-Scale Harmonic Model for Solar and Climate Cyclical Variation throughout the Holocene Based on Jupiter-Saturn Tidal Frequencies plus the 11-Year Solar Dynamo Cycle. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 80, 296-311.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2012.02.016
[16] Cionco, R.G. and Compagnucci, R.H. (2012) Dynamical Characterization of the Last Prolonged Solar Minima. Advances in Space Research, 50, 1434-1444.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2012.07.013
[17] Morner, N.-A. (2013) Planetary Beat and Solar-Terrestrial Responses. Pattern Recognition in Physics, 1, 107-116.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/prp-1-107-2013
[18] Solheim, J.-E. (2013) Signals from the Planets, via the Sun to the Earth. Pattern Recognition in Physics, 1, 177-184.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/prp-1-177-2013
[19] Wilson, I.R.G. (2013) The Venus-Earth-Jupiter Spin-Orbit Coupling. Pattern Recognition in Physics, 1, 147-158.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/prp-1-147-2013
[20] Salvador, R. (2013) A Mathematical Model of the Sunspot Cycle for the Past 1000 yr. Pattern Recognition in Physics, 1, 117-122.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/prp-1-117-2013
[21] Morner, N.-A., Tattersall, R., Solheim, J.-E., Charvatova, I., Scafetta, N., Jelbring, H., Wilson, J.R., Salvador, R., Willson, R.C., Hejda, P., Soon, W., Velasco Herrera, V.M., Humlum, O., Archibald, D., Yndestad, H., Easterbrook, D.J., Casey, J., Gregori, G. and Henriksson, G. (2013) General Conclu-sions regarding the Planetary-Solar-Terrestrial Interaction. Pattern Recognition in Physics, 1, 205-206.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/prp-1-205-2013
[22] Charvátová, I. and Hejda, P. (2014) Responses of the Basic Cycles of 178.7 and 2402 yr in Solar-Terrestrial Phenomena during the Holocene. Pattern Recognition in Physics, 2, 21-26.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/prp-2-21-2014
[23] Abdussamatov, H.J. (20114) Long-Term Negative Average Annual Energy Balance of the Earth Leads to the Little Ice Age. Proceedings of the XVIII Conference on Solar and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 2014, Pulkovo, 20-25 October 2014, 3-6.
[24] Georgieva, K., Nagovitsyn, Y. and Kirov, B. (2014) Solar Magnetic Field and Terrestrial Climate. Proceedings of the XVIII Conference on Solar and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 2014, Pulkovo, 20-25 October 2014, 99-104.
[25] Shepherd, S.I., Zharkov, S.I. and Zharkova, V.V. (2014) Prediction of Solar Activity from Solar Background Magnetic Field Variations in Cycles 21-23. Astrophysics Journal, 795, 46.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/795/1/46
[26] Cionco, R.G. and Soon, W. (2015) A Phenomenological Study of the Timing of Solar Activity Minima of the Last Millennium through Modelling the Sun-Planets Interaction. New Astronomy, 34, 164-171.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.newast.2014.07.001
[27] Velasco Herrera, V.M., Mendoza, B. and Velasco Herrera, G. (2015) Reconstruction and Prediction of the Total Solar Irradiance; from the Medieval Warm Period to the 21st Century. New Astronomy, 34, 221-233.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.newast.2014.07.009
[28] Morner, N.-A. (2015) Chapter 2: Planetary-Solar-Terrestrial Interaction: A Review. In: Morner, N.-A., Ed., Planetary Influence on the Sun and the Earth, and a Modern Book-Burning, Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, 5-32.
[29] Morner, N.-A. (2015) Chapter 4: Multiple Planetary Influences on the Earth. In: Morner, N.-A., Ed., Planetary Influence on the Sun and the Earth, and a Modern Book-Burning, Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, 39-49.
[30] Morner, N.-A. (2015) Chapter 9: Concluding Re-marks. In: Morner, N.-A., Ed., Planetary Influence on the Sun and the Earth, and a Modern Book-Burning, Nova Sci-ence Publishers, Hauppauge, 109-120.
[31] Morner, N.-A., Monckton, C., Gregori, G., Tattersall, R., Solheim, J.-E., Scafetta, N., Charvatova, I., Jelbring, H., Wilson, J.R., Salvador, R., Willson, R.C., Hansen, J.M., Humlum, O., Karlén, W., Nemec, N., Kalenda, P., Archibald, D., Velasco Herrera, V.M., Grandpierre, A. and Easterbrook, D.J. (2015) Chapter 17: Conclusions and Perspectives. In: Morner, N.-A., Ed., Planetary Influence on the Sun and the Earth, and a Modern Book-Burning, Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, 187-190.

Snowpiercer

https://lookmovie2.to/movies/view/snowpiercer-2013
2013

Snowpiercer is a 2013 post-apocalyptic science fiction action film based on the French climate fiction graphic novel Le Transperceneige by Jacques Lob, Benjamin Legrand and Jean-Marc Rochette. The film was directed by Bong Joon-ho[6][7] and written by Bong and Kelly Masterson. A South Korean-Czech co-production, the film marks Bong’s English-language debut; almost 85% of the film’s dialogue is in English.

It takes place aboard the Snowpiercer train as it travels a globe-encircling track, carrying the last remnants of humanity after a failed attempt at climate engineering to stop global warming has created a new Snowball Earth. Evans stars as Curtis Everett, leader of the lower-class tail-section passengers, as they rebel against the elite of the front of the train.

Snowpiercer received critical acclaim, and appeared on many film critics’ top ten lists of 2014 after its international release, with praise for its vision, direction, and performances, particularly by Evans and Swinton. In the United States, the film was initially planned for a limited-screen showing but the critical response prompted The Weinstein Company to expand the showing to more theaters and to digital streaming services.

https://www.postapocalypticmedia.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/snowpiercer.jpg

Carbon Tax Scam – Clear Energy Alliance

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G8y_WsVvYQ8
2018

We’ve been hearing a lot about the virtues of a carbon tax. Some even have the gall to call it a “dividend”. Don’t be fooled by the fluffy talk. A tax on carbon is a bad idea—a combination of lots of big bad stuff—big government, big corporate influence, big deception, big job losses and big taxes on all of us.

What happened to the land bridge between Alaska and Russia?

https://www.archivemore.com/what-happened-to-the-land-bridge-between-alaska-and-russia/

The last ice age ended and the land bridge began to disappear beneath the sea, some 13,000 years ago. Global sea levels rose as the vast continental ice sheets melted, liberating billions of gallons of fresh water.
Was there a land bridge between Alaska and Russia?

Here’s What It Looked Like 18,000 Years Ago. In fact, the map shows all of Beringia — the sprawling region that includes parts of Russia, known as western Beringia; Alaska, called eastern Beringia; and the ancient land bridge that connected the two. …
When was the land bridge between Russia and Alaska?

The Bering land bridge is a postulated route of human migration to the Americas from Asia about 20,000 years ago. An open corridor through the ice-covered North American Arctic was too barren to support human migrations before around 12,600 BP.
What was the land bridge from Siberia to Alaska called?

Bering Land Bridge

Beringia

https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/beringia

The importance of Beringia is twofold: it provided a pathway for intercontinental exchanges of plants and animals during glacial periods and for interoceanic exchanges during interglacials; it has been a centre of evolution and has supported apparently unique plant and animal communities.

Beringia is a landmass including portions of 3 modern nations (Canada, US and Russia) and extending from the Siberian Kolyma River and Kamchatka Peninsula, through Alaska and Yukon Territory, to the Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories. Near the centre of the region is Bering Strait, for which it was named. Today, this strait links the Arctic and Pacific oceans, but in the past lowered sea levels, resulting in part from growth of continental glaciers, exposed portions of the continental shelves to form a broad land bridge between northeast Asia and northwest North America.

The importance of Beringia is twofold: it provided a pathway for intercontinental exchanges of plants and animals during glacial periods and for interoceanic exchanges during interglacials; it has been a centre of evolution and has supported apparently unique plant and animal communities. The history of Beringia is important not only in the evolution of landscapes but also in that of plants and animals.

Beringia is a land of great beauty, with the highest mountains in North America overlooking broad plateaus and meandering rivers. It extends from frozen Arctic coasts on the north to Pacific coasts warmed by the Japanese Current on the south. The temperatures range from some of the coldest on the Earth in winter to uncomfortably warm in summer. Twenty-four-hour summer days contrast with long periods of winter darkness.

Because of its aridity, much of Beringia remained unglaciated during the ice ages. The stratigraphy of long sequences of nonglacial sediment exposed at various sites can be correlated with alpine and continental glacial advances elsewhere. Fossils from such sediments are often exceptionally abundant and well preserved. They include pollen grains, plant fossils, invertebrates and vertebrate bones. Studies of fossils and of the sediments in which they occur have permitted tentative reconstructions of paleo-environments in western and eastern Beringia.

Beringia is of special importance in the study of human prehistory since it is most likely the area through which man first entered the western hemisphere, presumably following the migrations of large mammals, known from fossil evidence to have roamed eastward across the Bering Land Bridge. Portions of western Beringia (now eastern Siberia) may have been occupied by humans as early as 35 000 years ago. Artifacts of comparable age have been tentatively identified in eastern Beringia on the basis of broken and butchered mammal bones, but the oldest secure evidence of human occupation in Alaska or Yukon Territory dates to the period 20 000-25 000 years ago.

Permanent settlement of Beringia depended upon the invention and perfection of a complex array of cultural and technological skills. Tailored skin clothing, secure dwellings, control of fire, special methods of food procurement and storage and possibly some form of watercraft to cross large, cold-water bodies were prerequisites of human life in these latitudes. Some writers have suggested that the ancient colonization of Beringia represented a technological achievement equivalent to the penetration of such environments as Antarctica, the deep sea and the moon.

Beringia