Dairy, Lactose & rBGH

Why Dairy Might be Causing Your Digestive Distress


I don’t eat dairy. I don’t hate dairy either. It just doesn’t agree with me. But that wasn’t always the case. Six years ago I was drinking milk for breakfast, eating yoghurt for a morning snack and munching my way through multiple serves of cheese every day. But, I was also chronically constipated, had horrible skin and a constantly running nose.

And if you consider yourself somewhat of a dairy queen, it might just be the reason you’re experiencing digestive issues and IBS symptoms. While the health benefits of modern, processed dairy are still very much up for debate, there’s no disputing the gastrointestinal effects dairy can have on many people. And it’s more than just lactose intolerance that might be to blame.

Here is a summary of what we are going to cover:
>  Three reasons you might not be able to digest lactose
>  What FODMAPs and SIBO have to do with dairy
>  How dairy proteins can cause immune reactions and IBS symptoms
>  Why milk might actually be designed to cause a leaky gut


How Dairy Can Cause Digestive Distress


Lactose intolerance is actually an enzyme deficiency, not an allergy. The enzyme that breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose (simple sugars) is lactase. Without lactase, undigested lactose can make it’s way to the large intestine (lactose malabsorption) and cause digestive upset in many people (lactose intolerance).


A lactase enzyme deficiency, leading to lactose malabsorption, can happen for one of three main reasons:

Lactase Non-Persistence: While lactase production is essential for infants during breastfeeding, lactose production usually declines after the weaning period is over (1). While the majority of the human population lose the ability to digest lactose from around age 4 or 5, around 35% of people continue to produce lactase throughout adolescence and even into adult life (2). These lucky few can digest the lactose found in dairy products. This evolutionary trait, known as lactose persistence, is more common amongst Europeans and other cultures that started domesticating animals and milking cows around 8,000 years ago (3).

Damaged Intestinal Lining: Lactase deficiency also occurs as a result of damage to the epithelial cells lining the intestinal walls, which are responsible for producing lactase in the gut (4). Conditions such as coeliac disease or intestinal infections such as bacterial, parasitic or yeast overgrowths can all result in a damaged or ‘leaky’ gut and impaired lactase production. This type of deficiency is commonly reversible after recovery from whatever condition is causing the damage in the first place (5).

Dysbiosis of Gut Bacteria: Certain types of gut bacteria, including lactobacillus and bifidobacteria, produce lactase and other enzymes that help us break down and absorb lactose (6, 7). However, if your gut flora doesn’t have the right species or is overrun with the wrong ones, you might struggle to digest dairy products containing lactose (8). This kind of dysbiosis can happen for many reasons, the most common of which include; antibiotics, intestinal infections (bacteria, parasite, yeast), stress, toxins and eating a processed-food diet.

And just so you know, it is very interesting to note that raw (unpasteurised) milk actually has lactase enzymes in it that help break down the lactose once it gets to your gut – nature is pretty smart like that. However, in our pursuit to kill bacteria of all varieties (good or bad), the rapid heating of milk (pasteurising) kills off the lactase, making it increasingly difficult for many people to digest commercial dairy products (9). While farmers are allowed to drink their own raw cow’s milk, Australia is one of only two countries in the world where it is illegal to sell raw milk for human consumption. So, until the laws change, getting access to raw dairy that has the lactase enzymes in it, and is easier for us to digest, means owning a cow.


Lactose malabsorption and intolerance are not the same thing. While malabsorption describes the body’s inability to break down lactose in the small intestine, intolerance is the reporting of gastrointestinal symptoms including abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and diarrhoea (4).

Lactose that is not broken down properly and that reaches the large intestine (malabsorption), will not necessarily cause symptoms, with only some malabsorbers reporting them. And with certain conditions, the lactose doesn’t need to make it past the small intestine for intolerance symptoms to develop. So, you can have malabsorption without intolerance and intolerance with malabsorption… or both. Are you still with me? Here is the really interesting part:

Enter two acronyms that anyone with IBS is probably familiar with – FODMAPs and SIBO. Let’s look at each in a little more detail.

FODMAPs – Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols: FODMAPs are sugars, found in many everyday foods, that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine and reach the large intestine where they produce gas and attract water. With a sensitivity to FODMAPs, bacteria located in the large intestine ferment specific types of carbohydrates, leading to gas, bloating, diarrhoea and other IBS-type symptoms (10). It should be no surprise to learn that lactose is one of the these carbohydrates – a disaccharide, to be exact. So, for lactose malabsorbers with the wrong balance of bacteria in the large intestine, lactose often results in gastrointestinal symptoms.

SIBO – Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: While it’s normal to have bacteria in your intestines, most of them should be in your large intestine, not your small intestine. SIBO occurs when bacteria from your colon (large intestine) overgrow into your small intestine (11). These bacteria aren’t necessarily bad, they are just in the wrong place. And with this bacteria in the wrong place, fermentation can  happen in your small intestine, rather than in the large intestine, as discussed above. With lactose being one of these fermentable carbohydrates, those with SIBO might still experience IBS symptoms regardless of whether they are lactose malabsorbers or not.


There are six types of protein in cow’s dairy; four types of casein (found in the solid part) and two types of whey (found in the liquid part). Among these different types of proteins are numerous ways for humans to experience adverse reactions.

Allergy (IgE mediated): Allergy to the proteins in dairy (more commonly casein than whey), often referred to as cow’s milk allergy (CMA), is the most common food allergy in early childhood (12). This ‘true’, or IgE mediated allergy is estimated to affect around 5% of young children but progressively decrease in prevalence with age (13). This milk-induced allergic reaction can include itchy skin, hives, rashes, diarrhoea, stomach pains and breathing difficulties, among other symptoms. This is a more life-threatening condition than the general intolerances we are used to seeing in clients with IBS.

Intolerance (IgG mediated): A food intolerance to dairy is the most common IgG mediated immune response I see in patients with IBS – affecting up to two-thirds of those tested. The main culprit is a specific type of casein, known as A1 beta-casein, most commonly present in the high-producing Holstein cows favoured by American, Australian and Western European industrial dairies. A1 casein is thought to represent a mutated form of protein, appearing around 5,000 years ago, after the onset of agriculture and animal domestication (14).

It is this A1 casein that releases an opiate-stimulating compound called casomorphin, found to cause gastrointestinal inflammation as well as delayed transit time (i.e. constipation) in some people (15). While destructive on its own, A1 casein’s interaction with lactose can cause further issues. Firstly, the inflammatory effects of A1 casein may affect lactase enzyme production and increase malabsorption. Secondly, the delayed transit time (constipation) may lead to increased opportunity for lactose fermentation in either the large or small intestine – the perfect recipe for gastrointestinal symptoms.

By contrast, milk that is exclusively A2 casein has been shown not to produce similar inflammatory and transit time reactions (15). Milk from Jersey cows as well as goats are traditionally A2 and a good starting point for those struggling with dairy products. The Australian dairy industry unfortunately switched to A1-producing cows in the 1970’s. This might help explain why we are all struggling today, while our parents were drinking milk like it was going out of fashion with no such problems.

Gluten cross-reactivity: Recent studies have concluded that casein is involved in setting off IBS symptoms for coeliac patients on gluten-free diets (16). Because of what are known as cross-reactive antibodies, the same antibodies created against gluten might also react to other foods, including (most commonly) cow’s milk. Meaning, when you eat dairy, your body still thinks you’re eating gluten, and reacts accordingly. Not cool.

American Milk Banned in Europe Because it Does No Body Good


As a mother of three young children, the debate centered around the nutritional value of cow’s milk has been at the forefront of my mind for quite some time. Conditioned by the well-known campaigns of milk marketers “Milk. It does a body good.” and “Got Milk?”, I’ve been led to believe that milk is needed – especially by young children – for good bone growth, brain development and, of course, to meet the body’s calcium needs.

If milk does a body so much good, why is US-produced milk banned in Europe? It turns out that in 1994, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone (rBGH). rBGH in milk is believed to increase the risk of cancer. In an attempt to protect its citizens from genetically-modified milk, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the U.N. Food Safety Agency representing 101 nations worldwide, has banned rBGH milk in the 101 nations that it represents. Canada is another country where rBGH milk is banned.

The European Commission organized independent research to review the effect of rBGH on public health. Here is what they found:

    “The public health committee confirmed earlier reports of excess levels of the naturally occurring Insulin-like-Growth Factor One (IGF-1), including its highly potent variants, in rBGH milk and concluded that these posed major risks of cancer, particularly of the breast and prostate, besides promoting the growth and invasiveness of cancer cells by inhibiting their programmed self-destruction (apoptosis).” Source: Samuel S. Epstein, M.D.

rBGH is another one of Monsanto’s genetically-engineered products that mimics the cow’s naturally-produced BGH hormone. American dairy farmers inject their cows with rBGH to increase how much milk each cow produced – usually by 20%. The use of rBGH results in cows also producing more IGF-1 hormone, to such excess that milk from rBGH-treated cows has up to 80% more IGF-1.

Researchers throughout the world argue that consumption of excess IGF-1 hormone, which is also found in humans, may result in a higher risk of breast, colon and prostate cancer. Yet, in the US, Monsanto and the milk industry do not clearly label which milk comes from rBGH-treated cows.

If the idea of consuming hormone-filled, cancer-causing, Franken-milk doesn’t turn you off of cow’s milk, at least the non-organic non-labeled brands, then perhaps some of the following facts will give you more food for thought:

    Milk is believed to deplete the body of natural calcium, which is used up in the process of digesting milk. It offers an inorganic calcium that cannot be easily digested and used by the human body. “Just like our bodies cannot use the iron in a magnet, they cannot use the calcium in milk.”

    Milk is acidic, making it difficult for the body to digest. As a result, the pH of human intestines may become unbalanced, making them more susceptible to injury and disease.

    Cow’s milk contains at least 59 active hormones, allergens, fat, cholesterol, herbicides, pesticies, antibiotics, blood, pus, bacteria and viruses.

    “It’s not natural for humans to drink cow’s milk. Humans milk is for humans. Cow’s milk is for calves. You have no more need of cow’s milk than you do rats milk, horses milk or elephant’s milk. Cow’s milk is a high fat fluid exquisitely designed to turn a 65 lb baby calf into a 400 lb cow. That’s what cow’s milk is for!” – Dr Michael Klaper MD

Yes, our bodies need calcium. But perhaps milk is not the best source, as we’ve been led to believe. Try eating more lettuce, kale, broccoli, almonds, oranges, flax seed, sesame seeds, dill, thyme and other dried herbs. For cereal, try almond or hemp milk instead of cow’s milk. Calcium from plant sources is more easily digested by our bodies than calcium from cow’s milk, because plants have a high magnesium content, and magnesium aids in the assimilation of calcium by the body. Decreasing your intake of cow’s milk will do your body good!

Early Sexual Maturity and Milk Hormones by Robert Cohen


The March, 2012 issue of the Journal of Human Biology contains a study in which cow’s milk consumption was associated with early sexual development.

Researchers in the Human Biology Program and Department of Anthropology at Indiana University wrote:
“Milk has been associated with early menarche and with acceleration of linear growth in adolescence…IGF-I is a candidate bioactive molecule linking milk consumption to more rapid growth and development.”

The scientists concluded:
“Routine milk consumption is an evolutionarily novel dietary behavior that has the potential to alter human life history parameters, especially vis-à-vis linear growth, which in turn may have negative long-term biological consequences.”

The same month the above study appeared (March, 2012), German Researchers reported in Nutritional Reviews that nutrition is an “important lifestyle factor influencing timing of puberty.”
Scientists concluded:
“Early onset of puberty may confer adverse health consequences…children with the highest intakes of vegetable protein or animal protein experience pubertal onset up to seven months later or seven months earlier, respectively.”

My youngest daughter is in sixth grade, and my own sixth grade photograph brought about pleasant memories. It also triggered a surprise. Most of the boys in my class looked sharp in their Cub Scout uniforms, and our crew cuts depicted the symbolic hairstyle of the early 60’s. Photos of my eleven-year-old friends resemble today’s young boys. Little has changed. Today’s little girls, though, are shockingly different. Eleven-year old girls from my day were flat-chested. There is no denying the photographic evidence. A scan of today’s pre-teen schoolyard cannot disguise the number of large-busted sexually mature girls. A recent series of phone calls to my friends confirmed that my own experience was not unusual. Today’s girls are very different. In my own sixth grade photo, there was Gail with pigtails, and Ellen with her irresistible smile, hands neatly folded on her desk. One little girl after another exhibited none of the budding signs of early sexual development that baffle today’s sociologists and endocrinologists.

Today, little girls are made up of more than just sugar, spice, and everything nice. These girls of the twenty-first century are maturing earlier than last generation’s children, and something is very different about their womanly physical attributes and behavior. Could there be a food link to this mystery?
In 1970, according to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the dairy industry produced 2.2 billion pounds of cheese. The population of the United States was 203 million, which translates to an average of 10.8 pounds of cheese per person. By 1990, America’s population had grown to 248 million, and Americans were eating more cheese, 6 billion pounds worth. That’s an average of 24 pounds per person. In 1994, the average American consumed 27.7 pounds of cheese. As we pass from one millennium into another, America’s per-capita cheese consumption has broken the 30-pound per person level. America’s rate of cheese consumption is skyrocketing. Since ten pounds of milk are required to produce just one pound of cheese, three hundred pounds of milk are used to manufacture that thirty pounds of cheese. The USDA publishes yearly food consumption data. In 1999, the average American consumed a combined 5 ounces per day of meat and chicken, and 29.2 ounces of milk and dairy products. That’s 666 pounds per year per American of dairy products, making this group the largest component of America’s diet. Concentrated milk in the form of increased cheese consumption means that concentrated hormones are being consumed.

Every sip of cow’s milk contains 59 different bioactive hormones, according to endocrinologist Clark Grosvenor in the Journal of Endocrine Reviews in 1992. Milk has always been a hormonal delivery system, providing nursing infants with nature’s perfect food for the young of each species. Thousands of studies published in respected peer-reviewed scientific journals report that lactoferrins, immunoglobulins, and hormones in human breast milk provide enormous benefit for nursing humans. In other words, hormones in milk work to exert powerful effects. Each species of mammal has a different formula. Cow’s milk contains hormones, and nursing on cow’s milk will deliver these hormones to the human body.

As a little girl becomes a big girl, then a mature woman, she will naturally produce in her lifetime the equivalent of only one tablespoon of estrogen. Hormones work on a nanomolecular lever, which means that it takes only a billionth of a gram to produce a powerful biological effect. Should little girls be encouraged to pop estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin pills each day? If they drink cow’s milk, that is just what they are doing. If they eat cheese and ice cream, they ingest concentrated forms of these hormones.

Is early sexual maturity a bad thing, healthwise? Dr. Catherine Berkey, of Brigham Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, examined data from participants in the Harvard Nurses’ Health Study. Her findings were published in the journal Cancer in 1999. Of the 65,000 participants, 2,291 developed breast cancer. Dr. Berkey’s comment: “Earlier menarche and taller adult height were predictive of elevated breast carcinoma risk. Our work provided evidence that breast cancer risk is influenced by preadulthood factors, and thus prevention efforts that begin in childhood and adolescence may someday be useful.”

Is it possible to do a controlled scientific study testing this theory? Such a study was actually performed on an entire nation. There is one country where milk consumption was unknown before 1946. In Japan, in every year since 1946, 20,000 persons from 6,100 households have been interviewed and their diets carefully analyzed along with their weights and heights and other factors such as cancer rates and age of puberty (the last measured by the onset of menstruation in young girls). The results of the study were published in Preventive Medicine by Kagawa in 1978.

Japan had been devastated by losing a war and was occupied by American troops. Americanization included dietary changes. Milk and dairy products were becoming a significant part of the Japanese diet. According to this study, the per-capita yearly dietary intake of dairy products in 1950 was only 5.5 pounds. Twenty- five years later, the average Japanese ate 117.4 pounds of milk and dairy products.
In 1950, the average twelve-year old Japanese girl was 4’6″ tall and weighed 71 pounds. By 1975, the average Japanese girl, after changing her diet to include milk and dairy products containing 59 different bioactive hormones, had grown an average of 4 1/2 inches and gained 19 pounds. In 1950, the average Japanese girl had her first menstrual cycle at the age of 15.2 years. Twenty five years later, after a daily intake of estrogen and progesterone from milk, the average Japanese girl was ovulating at the age of 12.2 years, three years younger. Never before had such a dramatic dietary change been seen in such a unique population study.

Little girls do not take birth control pills. Little girls do not inject steroids, and do not require estrogen replacement therapy. Little girls are born with bodies that are genetically pre-programmed to transform them into women. By consuming cow’s milk and cow’s milk products, little girls become big girls long before Mother Nature intended. Is being taller, having larger than normal breasts, starting your period earlier than you’re designed to, and increasing your risk of breast cancer worth it?

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Don’s Comments: It’s fascinating to see how many organizations, agencies, and even the media will report the correlation between the earlier onset of menstruation in young girls and the increased risk of breast cancer, but go on to say that the exact mechanism is “unknown”, when the exact mechanism is definitely known! It’s hormones from animal products, mostly milk products. But saying so would severely hurt multi-billion dollar industries, so they simply report the problem and then raise money to research it, and raise money to find a cure for breast cancer.

Early Puberty In Girls Is Becoming Epidemic and Getting Worse


Girls with early onset puberty face a number of mental and physical health risks.

Padded bras for kindergarteners with growing breasts to make them more comfortable? Sixteen percent of U.S. girls experiencing breast development by the age of 7? Thirty percent by the age of 8? Clearly something is affecting the hormones of U.S. girls—a phenomenon also seen in other developed countries. Girls in poorer countries seem to be spared—until they move to developed countries.

No scientists dispute that precocious or early-onset puberty is on the rise but they do not agree on the reasons. Is it bad diets and lack of exercise that cause growing obesity? Is it soft drinks themselves, even when not linked to obesity? Is it the common chemicals known as endocrine disrupters that exert estrogen-like effects (and also cause obesity)? Is it the many legal, unlabeled hormones used in the U.S. to fatten livestock? Some researchers even believe precocious puberty could be triggered by sociological factors like having no father in the home or even stress.

Puberty in girls is defined by three things: breast development (thelarche), appearance of pubic hair (pubarche) and the onset of menstrual periods (menarche), the latter coming last. In the 1700s, girls did not menstruate until age 17 or 18, and 100 years ago the average age when a girl got her first period was 16-17.

“The reason why weight matters is because when the body senses it has extra calories, enough to sustain a pregnancy, the fat tissues release a signal into the bloodstream,” reports KATU 2 News. “That signal then travels to the brain, telling it that sexual development is a ‘go.’ Doctors see the opposite happen in girls who suffer from anorexia. When the body is starved of calories, the first thing it does is shut down sex hormones.”

Leptin, a protein produced by fatty tissue and believed to regulate fat storage in the body, is also a factor. Fat children have high levels of the protein leptin, which through a complicated chain involving the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, can stimulate the release of the three main hormones in puberty: hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone which encourage puberty.

What’s Wrong With Precocious Puberty?

There are many reasons precocious puberty is undesirable.

“Girls with earlier maturation are at risk for lower self-esteem and higher rates of depression. They are more likely to be influenced by older peers and more deviant peers, and initiate intercourse, substance use, and other norm-breaking behaviors at younger ages,” writes Frank M. Biro in the journal Pediatrics. “The biologic impact of earlier maturation includes greater risk of several cancers, including breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancer, as well as obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertension.”

Heart disease risk is also increased.

Finally, precocious puberty usually means reduced stature through accelerated growth and accelerated bone maturation that stops sooner than girls who mature later.

“The early occurrence of puberty shortens the duration of pre-pubertal growth in a fashion that is not compensated for by an increase in peak amplitude,” says a paper in the Oxford journal. In historical studies, “there was a negative correlation between the age of onset of precocious puberty and adult height, confirming the poor height prognosis of the most severe and early cases.”

Meat—Especially Hormone-Raised Meat—May Be a Factor

A 2010 study in Public Health Nutrition of 3,000 girls found that girls who ate eight portions of meat a week by age three, and 12 portions of meat a week by age seven were likely to have an early start of menstruation. In fact, the girls were 75 percent more likely to have begun their periods by the age of 12 if they were eating a high-meat diet when they were seven years old. Not mentioned in the study, led by Imogen Rogers from the University of Brighton, was whether the meat had been grown with livestock hormones, a practice that also raises concerns.

“We have always had access to junk food, but never in human history have we been the subjects of such an intense ingestion of chemicals and hormones,” writes Christina Pirello on the Huffington Post. “Dr. Andrew Weil states that more than two-thirds of the cattle raised in the U.S. are given hormones, usually testosterone and estrogen to boost growth. According to Cornell, there are actually six hormones commonly used in meat and dairy production: estradiol and progesterone (natural female sex hormones); testosterone (natural male sex hormone); zeranol, trenbolone acetate and melengesterol (synthetic growth promoters that make animals grow faster).”

Pirello urges people to eat more produce and avoid hormone-fed meat, noting, “If hormones can make an animal fat, what do you think will happen to us?” AlterNet has covered the wide use of the drug ractopamine in livestock production, which also produces unnatural weight gain.

More than a decade ago, milk made by giving cows genetically modified recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH) was thought to be linked to precocious puberty. The persistence of food safety advocates has largely driven rBGH, originally made by Monsanto, out of the milk supply.

While some suspect soy, which has some estrogen-like actions, could be another precocious puberty culprit, “a recent longitudinal study by our colleagues in the NIH-funded Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program (BCERP) suggests that soy intake might even delay pubertal onset in girls,” write Julianna Deardorff and Louise Greenspan, authors of The New Puberty: How to Navigate Early Development in Today’s Girls. Also, “There is epidemiologic evidence that women who consume soy as young girls have lower breast cancer risk,” the authors write.

Endocrine Disrupters: A New and Dangerous Factor

While meat and obesity have been around for a long time, endocrine-disrupting toxins found in everyday products like hand soap, shampoos, cosmetics, cleaning products and of course plastics have not. From carpets, couches and food containers to thermal receipts given at gas stations, chemicals that mimic estrogen and change our hormonal balance are now everywhere.

A 2012 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study found dichlorobenzene, a solvent used in mothballs, solid block toilet bowl deodorizers and air fresheners is linked to precocious puberty, reported Lindsey Konkel of Environmental Health News. Dichlorobenzene is a common indoor contaminant. Nationwide tests found dichlorobenzene residue in 98 percent of people tested, Konkel writes. The chemical passes to the fetus in the womb and is widely found in breast milk.

Precocious puberty has been linked to other common endocrine disrupters.

“Adolescent girls with high levels of brominated flame retardants had their first periods earlier than other girls in a 2011 study,” writes Konkel. “Also, girls prenatally exposed to other, now-banned flame retardants called PBBs began to menstruate at a younger age, according to one study of Michigan women who in 1973, while pregnant, ate food contaminated with the chemicals. In-the-womb exposure to the banned insecticide DDT was associated with early menarche in a study of mothers and daughters in the Great Lakes region in the 1970s and 1980s.”

Even puberty in animals has been affected by these chemicals, says Konkel.

Though tea tree oil and lavender are thought to be “natural,” they have also been linked to precocious puberty.

Unpredictable Households Could Play a Role

Emotional stress in a girl’s family with high levels of conflict can “jump-start” precocious puberty, write Greenspan and Deardorff.

“So does early sexual abuse. A girl who grows up without her biological father is twice as likely to get her period before age 12 compared with a girl reared with her father in the home. The effects of fathers may or may not be linked to stress, but a father’s presence in the home does seem to matter when it comes to puberty.”

Some have even suggested that stressed-out single mothers, having to provide the only paycheck while caring for their children, are more likely to feed girls fattening and processed food that is linked to precocious puberty.

Precocious Puberty Treated Through Lifestyle Changes

While there are drug treatments doctors can give to girls exhibiting precocious puberty that will block the effects of the soaring hormones, prevention is clearly preferable. Certainly a “green household,” with as few endocrine disrupting chemical products as possible is a good start, as is a “green diet” without excess chemicals, hormones and calories.

Do Growth Hormones in Food Affect Children?


Many parents worry about the effect of non-organic foods on the health of their children. Eating meat from cows treated with growth hormone exposes you to chemicals that may affect your health. The Food and Drug Administration investigates all hormones used in food production to ensure they are safe, but concerned parents may opt for organic meat and dairy products to be sure 3. Talk to your child’s pediatrician about growth hormones in beef and dairy products to determine whether they are safe for your child.

Growth Hormone Use

Most cattle farmers in the United States use growth hormones to increase a cow’s size or milk production. The FDA allows farmers to use recombinant bovine growth hormone, or rBGH, to increase milk yield in dairy cattle. Farmers also use synthetic and natural growth hormones to promote rapid weight gain in cattle, increasing total meat volume when the cows are slaughtered 3. The FDA approves use of six different growth hormones for this purpose. These hormones enter the meat and milk, exposing children to potentially harmful chemicals.

    Most cattle farmers in the United States use growth hormones to increase a cow’s size or milk production.
    The FDA allows farmers to use recombinant bovine growth hormone, or rBGH, to increase milk yield in dairy cattle.

Health Concerns

Consumer advocates worry that the pervasive use of growth hormones may cause health problems for children. Some parents believe that exposure to bovine growth hormones causes early puberty in young girls. Reaching puberty at a young age may increase your risk of cancer and other health problems. Another health concern is that children may develop milk allergies in response to the hormones found in dairy products.

    Consumer advocates worry that the pervasive use of growth hormones may cause health problems for children.
    Another health concern is that children may develop milk allergies in response to the hormones found in dairy products.

FDA Position

The FDA approves use of several growth hormones to increase meat and milk production in cows and sheep 3. The administration periodically reviews scientific literature to assess the risk of growth hormone use in children. The FDA claims milk and meat from treated cows do not contain a dangerous amount of growth hormones that could pose a risk to children. The hormone rBGH is physiologically inactive in humans; thus, it cannot lead to precocious puberty in girls.

    The FDA approves use of several growth hormones to increase meat and milk production in cows and sheep 3.
    The FDA claims milk and meat from treated cows do not contain a dangerous amount of growth hormones that could pose a risk to children.

Scientific Evidence

Milk from rBGH-treated cows contains insulin-like growth factor, or IGF-1, a hormone that promotes growth. In a 2010 study published in “The Journal of Clinical Investigation,” researcher Sara DiVall of Johns Hopkins University found that giving mice IGF-1 caused them to enter puberty earlier 4. However, a study conducted by Monsanto, a manufacturer of bovine growth hormones, found that milk from rBGH-treated cows did not have significantly higher IGF-1 levels than milk from non-treated cows. Andrea Wiley, a researcher at Indiana University, found that higher milk intake in young women is associated with early puberty, an association possibly caused by hormones in dairy products. In general, the scientific evidence is mixed as to whether growth hormones affect age of puberty and overall child health. More research is needed to determine whether products from cows treated with growth hormones affect child development.

    Milk from rBGH-treated cows contains insulin-like growth factor, or IGF-1, a hormone that promotes growth.
    Andrea Wiley, a researcher at Indiana University, found that higher milk intake in young women is associated with early puberty, an association possibly caused by hormones in dairy products.


The European Union does not allow use of rBGH or other growth hormones in dairy and meat production 3. The Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measures Relating to Public Health determined that several growth hormones could increase cancer risk or cause other health problems. Although the FDA does not corroborate these findings, concerned parents may choose hormone-free alternatives. Non-rBGH milk and organic meat products come from cows that remain untreated with growth hormones.

    The European Union does not allow use of rBGH or other growth hormones in dairy and meat production 3.
    Non-rBGH milk and organic meat products come from cows that remain untreated with growth hormones.

New study associates intake of dairy milk with greater risk of breast cancer


Dairy, soy and risk of breast cancer: Those confounded milks, published in the International Journal of Epidemiology, found that even relatively moderate amounts of dairy milk consumption can increase women’s risk of breast cancer — up to 80% depending on the amount consumed.

First author of the paper, Gary E. Fraser, MBChB, PhD, said the observational study gives “fairly strong evidence that either dairy milk or some other factor closely related to drinking dairy milk is a cause of breast cancer in women.

“Consuming as little as 1/4 to 1/3 cup of dairy milk per day was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer of 30%,” Fraser said. “By drinking up to one cup per day, the associated risk went up to 50%, and for those drinking two to three cups per day, the risk increased further to 70% to 80%.”

Current U.S. Dietary guidelines recommend three cups of milk per day. “Evidence from this study suggests that people should view that recommendation with caution,” Fraser said.

Dietary intakes of nearly 53,000 North American women were evaluated for the study, all of whom were initially free of cancer and were followed for nearly eight years. Dietary intakes were estimated from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), also repeated 24 hour recalls, and a baseline questionnaire had questions about demographics, family history of breast cancer, physical activity, alcohol consumption, hormonal and other medication use, breast cancer screening, and reproductive and gynecological history.

By the end of the study period, there were 1,057 new breast cancer cases during follow-up. No clear associations were found between soy products and breast cancer, independent of dairy. But, when compared to low or no milk consumption, higher intakes of dairy calories and dairy milk were associated with greater risk of breast cancer, independent of soy intake. Fraser noted that the results had minimal variation when comparing intake of full fat versus reduced or nonfat milks; there were no important associations noted with cheese and yogurt.

“However,” he said, “dairy foods, especially milk, were associated with increased risk, and the data predicted a marked reduction in risk associated with substituting soymilk for dairy milk. This raises the possibility that dairy-alternate milks may be an optimal choice.”

A hazardous effect of dairy is consistent with the recent AHS-2 report suggesting that vegans but not lacto-ovo-vegetarians experienced less breast cancer than non-vegetarians.

Fraser said the possible reasons for these associations between breast cancer and dairy milk may be the sex hormone content of dairy milk, as the cows are of course lactating, and often about 75% of the dairy herd is pregnant. Breast cancer in women is a hormone-responsive cancer. Further, intake of dairy and other animal proteins in some reports is also associated with higher blood levels of a hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which is thought to promote certain cancers.

“Dairy milk does have some positive nutritional qualities,” Fraser said, “but these need to be balanced against other possible, less helpful effects. This work suggests the urgent need for further research.”

Milk and Infertility – Can Dairy Make You Infertile?


Have you ever stopped and wondered if milk and infertility are linked? There is something fundamentally odd about humans consuming dairy. Just think about it. We are the only species on the planet that drink another mammal’s breast milk!

Breast milk, be it human or cow’s is designed for the young one of that species for a limited period of time, before they can eat solid food, period.

In this article, we will examine the link between milk and infertility and why this beloved, popular food can be so detrimental to your fertility.

Stats on Lactose Intolerance

We stop producing the enzyme lactase as small children (between ages 2-5). This enzyme helps break down lactose, the major sugar found in dairy products. That’s why lactose intolerance is very common in all parts of the world. Lactose Intolerance Affects[1]:

– 65% of adults worldwide[2]
– 30 to 50 million Americans
– 50 to 80% of Hispanics
– 60 to 80% of African-Americans
– 80 to 100% of Native Americans
– 95% of Asians
– and only 2% of individuals with northern European origin

What Happens When You’re Lactose Intolerant?

When you eat dairy and you are lactose intolerant, your gut becomes inflamed. With inflammation, mucus production increases in the digestive system.

The mucus prevents other nutrients from being absorbed. Excessive mucus production can also occur in the nose, lungs and reproductive system.

For this reason, sniffly nose and asthma-like reactions are common in people who are intolerant to dairy. Since mucus production increases, mucus in the reproductive system can be excessive. Unfortunately, this can make the sperm’s journey through the uterus and the fallopian tubes to the egg difficult.

Milk and Infertility: Is Dairy Good or Bad for Fertility? Can Dairy Affect Fertility?

One study found that a major source of animal-derived estrogens in the human diet are milk and dairy products, which account for 60-70% of the estrogens consumed[3].

Humans consume milk from the cows in the second half of pregnancy when the estrogen levels are high. Due to genetic modification of the dairy cows (such as Holstein), it is quite possible that the milk consumed today is not the same as it was 100 years ago.

These cows are fed a combination of grass and concentrates (grain/protein mixes and various by-products) allowing them to lactate during the second half of pregnancy.

Studies have found more concentrated pesticides in cheese than in non-organically grown fruit and vegetables. Excess estrogen and pesticide exposure have been linked to PCOS and Endometriosis. The first line of naturopathic treatment for PCOS and Endometriosis is to minimize the intake of animal products.

Animal products have a high content of hormones, pesticides and herbicides which are known endocrine disruptors. They play havoc with your hormones and this can lead to anovulation.

In some cases, milk and infertility have been linked in males.

What About Calcium?

We usually associate dairy and drinking milk with calcium, and never think about what else we may be consuming along with the calcium. Although it contains calcium, there are plenty of hormones also contained in cow’s milk including:

    thyroid-stimulating hormone
    …and many more!

Do you think an excess consumption of all these hormones results in a link between milk and infertility? You bet! With all these hormones, you may have hormonal imbalance.

Contrary to most people think, milk is just one of the many sources of calcium in your diet. While dairy can be a good source of vitamin D, protein, calcium and potassium, these nutrients may also be obtained from other dietary sources through a well-planned, well-balanced diet.

You can get calcium from seeds (chia, poppy, sesame and others), beans and lentils, almonds, dark leafy greens and plenty of others.

Milk Addiction?

If you think you are addicted to cheese and milk — guess what? You are!

Milk contains natural morphine, codeine and other opiates. The feel-good chemicals are in the milk so that the calf gets addicted to milk and bonds with the mother in order to survive. Morphine = Pleasure, so the calf associates pleasure with drinking milk and comes back for more.

The same chemicals make it into your cheese, which is why so many people love eating cheese. In Switzerland, it was reported that people in this cheese-loving country consume an average of 20kg of cheese per year!

Milk and Dairy May Affect Your Fertility

While dairy is a significant part of our lives, it may not be good for everyone. It can cause inflammation in the gut and lead to poor nutrient absorption. It can adversely affect your cervical mucus production, contribute to hormonal imbalances and anovulation.

If you’re trying to conceive, it would be best to avoid dairy to help balance your hormones and improve your chances of conceiving. However, if you do eat dairy, or find it hard to give up dairy, make sure you consume full-fat organic dairy. Low-fat dairy may increase the risk of anovulatory infertility[4].

Got rBST-free milk?


One of the earliest opponents was the ice cream company, Ben & Jerry’s of Vermont, which began posting this label on its ice cream cartons in 1997: “We oppose Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone. The family farmers who supply our milk and cream pledge not to treat their cows with rBGH.” On its website, Ben & Jerry’s says it believes rBGH “is a step in the wrong direction toward a synthetic, chemically-intensive, factory-produced food supply.”

About half a dozen states have tried to ban or restrict the so-called “absence labels,” partly because there is no test to differentiate between the natural and synthetic BST in milk.

So far, opposition from consumer and retail advocates has won out. Last month, Pennsylvania backed down and withdrew a short-lived ban on the labels. However, the state now requires certification from milk producers to support their rBGH-free claims.

Sara Kaplaniak, the mom from Harrisburg, is pleased with the reversal. “I believe that absolutely a company should be able to put on the label that the milk has been produced without anything extra in the way of hormones and additives. It matters.”

Many in the dairy industry agree that consumers have a right to know how their milk is made – and suppliers have a right to tell them. “We believe that our members have the right to include truthful and not misleading information on their labels,” says Armstrong from the IDFA. “They’re asking to at least know what they’re drinking so they can make more informed choices. But really what it comes down to is — milk is milk.”

The FDA urges – but does not require – rBST-free labels to include a disclaimer to counter the implication that the milk is safer. Ben & Jerry’s complies with this sentence: “The FDA has said no significant difference has been shown and no test can now distinguish between milk from rBGH treated and untreated cows.”

Which cheese has the lowest lactose?


Hard, aged cheeses like Swiss, parmesan, and cheddars are lower in lactose. Other low-lactose cheese options include cottage cheese or feta cheese made from goat or sheep’s milk. Certain types of cheeses — especially soft or creamy ones like ricottta and cream cheese — are higher in lactose.

Hard cheeses such as parmesan, Swiss, and cheddar may be easier to digest because most of the lactose is eliminated while the cheese is being made. Products made from cream — like ice cream, cream cheese, custard, or butter — should be avoided due to the high levels of lactose.

What cheeses are high in lactose? Cheeses that tend to be higher in lactose include cheese spreads, soft cheeses like Brie or Camembert, cottage cheese and mozzarella. What’s more, even some higher-lactose cheeses may not cause symptoms in small portions, as they tend to still contain less than 12 grams of lactose.

Hard cheeses, such as cheddar and Parmesan, as well as matured cheeses such as brie, camembert and feta contain virtually no lactose because of the way they are made.

Foods that are high in lactose are milk, cheese, yogurt and sour cream. Milk has the highest amount at 12 grams per cup. Cheese that has 1 gram of lactose per serving is considered to be low in lactose.

Does Goat Cheese Have Lactose? Some believe that cheese made from goat milk is the easiest type of cheese for lactose-intolerant people to digest. Goats’ milk basically has the same amount of lactose in it. However, it is naturally homogenized, which can make it easier to digest.

Whole milk contains about 13 grams of lactose per 1-cup serving, while skim milk can contain between 12 and 13 grams. Milk is also an ingredient in many other foods like margarine, shortening, baked goods, salad dressing, creamers, and more

Database of Lactose Content In Cheese


How much lactose is in cheese?

Without a doubt, the lactose content in cheese varies more based on the maturation period than the milk that it is made from. Let’s have a look at the lactose content in different types of cheese. You can sort this extensive table by cheese name, cheese type, milk and lactose content.

As you can see, many of the world’s most popular cheeses show no detectable levels of lactose. You might not be surprised to see that this list includes the likes of Parmigiano Reggiano, Cheddar, Manchego, Gouda and Gruyère.

On the other hand, you might be surprised to find out how little lactose is actually in soft cheeses such as Brie, Camembert and Mont d’Or!

Unsurprisingly, cheeses that are higher in moisture such as Ricotta, Cream Cheese, Cottage Cheese and Haloumi tends to have a higher lactose content. And, finally, processed low fat cheeses usually contain the highest amount of lactose.

The Putrid Truth About Pasteurized & Homogenized Dairy


The Major Problems with Pasteurized Dairy

Pasteurization destroys nutrients such as Vitamins B-12, B-6, C, A, beneficial bacteria, as well as denatures delicate milk proteins and vital enzymes. Because of the denaturization of proteins and the destruction of enzymes, pasteurized dairy promotes the growth of pathogens and potentially harmful bacteria. These same bacteria are not harmful in raw milk. Calves fed pasteurized dairy develop very poorly and often die before maturity. In humans, pasteurized dairy is a DIRECT CAUSE of sinus and respiratory infections, tooth decay, allergies, colic in infants, stunted growth, intestinal and digestive issues, leaky gut, heart disease and osteoporosis. Because pasteurized dairy lacks enzyme activity, it turns putrid rather than sour. Processors must remove pus through a process called centrifugal clarification.

Modern pasteurization methods called ‘ultra pasteurization’ are an even more virulent form of pasteurization. This process heats milk to temperatures of 180F, preserving shelf life and destroying nutrients in greater amounts.


Homogenization has been called “the worst thing dairymen have done to milk.” Homogenization filters and presses milk fats at 4,000 pounds per square inch, which causes a reduction of size of fat globules. This process oxidizes milk fats making them carcinogenic and toxic to the body.

Homogenization causes a release of an enzyme, Xanthine Oxidase, which is harmful once artificially broken down into a smaller state. Xanthine Oxidase has been shown to adhere to arterial walls and is identified as causative in heart disease.

Because raw milk proteins are digested in the presence of milk enzymes, the process of pasteurization and homogenization destroys these natural biological processes. The human digestive tract often recognizes these damaged milk proteins as antigens and the body may mount an immune response. This is a primary reason why pasteurized dairy is associated with mucous production, leaky gut, allergies and autoimmune processes.

Organic Raw Dairy: One of Nature’s Purest Foods

Raw dairy from a healthy, ruminant animal on the other hand is a completely different food. Like all milk from a healthy mammal, raw dairy yields a tremendous amount of life supporting nutrients, enzymes and beneficial, immune building bacteria.

Raw milk is one of the richest sources of lactobacillus acidopholous, the most abundant native bacteria in the human gastro-intestinal tract. Raw milk is a perfect food, containing a full spectrum of fat, protein and carbohydrates. Raw milk is also a tremendous source of Vitamin A, B-12, Folate, B-6 and even Vitamin C.

The Healthiest Cultures in History Consumed Raw Milk, Not Pasteurized Milk

The need for pasteurization is outdated. It was originally implemented to combat unsanitary and poor farming practices of early 20th century dairies. If federal government agencies such as the FDA properly regulated the dairy industry, the need for pasteurization would end. The truth is that the healthiest cultures to have walked the earth consumed raw dairy.

Hippocrates and Galen, 2 ancient fathers of medicine used raw milk as an effective treatment for diseases, including diabetes. Historians date human consumption of dairy back 30,000 years. Raw dairy was used in the 1920’s to cure tuberculosis, kidney disease, prostate disease, chronic fatigue and obesity.

Because of the enormous economic power of big commercial dairies, raw dairy is illegal for commercial sale in most U.S. states. Sadly, government agencies such as the FDA have been conducting violent raids of raw dairy producers, including small, Amish farms. Many of these raids occur with agents drawing guns and confiscating the products. The only way this ignorance will stop is by people demanding raw dairy and refusing to purchase the imitation. Please write to your congressmen and women and tell them to support the sale of healthy, raw dairy in your state.

The Health Benefits of Unpasteurised Cheese


The theory he espouses is that the fermentation process is important to why cheese and yoghurt despite the saturated fat content causes no harm to heart health and in fact the presence of the bacteria and the diversity of bacteria in unpasteurised cheese has health benefits.

Before his work on the ZOE app for monitoring Covid, Tim Spector was focussed on what he calls ‘Twin Studies’. In this he looks for reasons why twins, born identical, may have incredibly different standards of health in adult life when they have identical inherited genes. His research has shown that a large proportion of the genetic material in our bodies isn’t what we inherit but is derived from the bacteria in our intestines. By looking at the differing diversities of gut bacteria in the twins he was able to identify some key bacteria types which were common in the healthier twins, one of which is lactobacillus, present in any fermented dairy products as well as known healthy foods such as sourdough bread, sauerkraut & kimchi. In general, in studies across the world, the common denominator between the healthiest populations is a varied diet, high in fibre from fruit & vegetables and encouraging a high biodiversity in the gut.

In fact the French paradox may in fact be partly that their diet is rich in fermented foods, wine, unpasteurised cheese, cultured butter as well as the variety of fruit and vegetables available. Unlike the American or British diet, more of their cheeses are made from unpasteurised milk. It is also more common for them to be made with either home developed starter cultures (rather than commercial ones) or indeed by simply souring the milk naturally. These more natural cheeses contain a greater diversity of bacteria than mass produced cheese and therefore, although the evidence isn’t there for it as studies have not been carried out, extrapolating from the analysis presented in Tim Spector’s book, the greater benefit to your own inner flora. In order to address whether these bacteria do indeed survive the conditions of the stomach, he carried out an ad hoc experiment on himself eating cheese for every meal and analysing gut content afterwards which did show an increase in lactobacillus. The fat content of the cheese and yoghurt, in fact protects the microbes from stomach acid and allows them to travel to the intestines. Obviously this isn’t a scientific study, but provides anecdotal evidence that your diet can implant beneficial bacteria into your gut and that this can affect your overall health. In the Twin Studies, Tim Spector found a correlation between bacterial biodiversity and mental health or the ability to maintain a healthy weight.

So while on the face of it, a high calorie food like unpasteurised cheese may appear to be something to limit in your diet, it is actually an important component if healthy body function is to be maintained. Unpasteurised cheese can be healthy.

How Much Lactose is in Yogurt? Get the Facts Here


The amount of lactose in yogurt varies greatly depending on the type of yogurt. Generally, Greek style yogurt contains less lactose than traditional yogurt, while regular yogurt contains more lactose than low-fat or fat-free versions.

When looking at the amount of lactose in different types of yogurt, it is important to note that there are a variety of options on the market. One type of yogurt, Greek or strained yogurt, typically has less lactose than traditional yogurt. The process of making Greek yogurt removes some of the whey and reduces the amount of lactose significantly. As a result, Greek yogurt can contain half or even a third of the amount of lactose contained in other types of yogurt. Of course, this varies based on brands, so it’s important to read the nutrition label to get an accurate account of how much lactose is present in each product. On the other hand, some studies suggest that many kinds of unflavored yogurts contain an average between 4 and 8 grams per 8 ounces serving.

Kraft Singles Aren’t Actually Cheese. Here’s Why


Kraft Singles are a staple for a lot of people – after all, there’s nothing easier for sandwiches or grilled cheese than those individually wrapped slices. But despite their flavor and appearance, Kraft Singles aren’t really cheese at all. It doesn’t make them any less delicious, but according to Vox, Kraft Singles can’t legally be called cheese. Instead, calling them a cheese food product is more accurate.

Real cheese is made from milk, rennet, and salt, while Kraft Singles have quite a few other ingredients that make them not technically real cheese. Mental Floss reports that Kraft Singles have a whole laundry list of ingredients, including milk, whey, milk protein concentrate, milkfat, and a host of other ingredients that appear in small quantities, like sodium phosphate, sorbic acid, and paprika extract (which helps gives each slice its signature yellow color). When you mix all of them together, Kraft Singles are less than 51 percent real cheese, which is why it can’t legally be called cheese.

The list of ingredients isn’t exactly clear, but what’s obvious is that Kraft Singles aren’t the most traditional cheese you can find. According to Business Insider, Kraft American cheese is usually a mixture of other cheeses that have been melted together. In an interview with Business Insider, Michael Tunick, a research chemist for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, explains that J.L. Kraft created Kraft American cheese because he was trying to get rid of some older cheeses.

Kraft’s solution, according to Extra Crispy, was to melt down all of the unusable pieces of cheese he had, then blend them together with a few other ingredients. The result was single slices of American cheese. Though Kraft was the first to process cheese this way, other manufacturers started to follow suit, which is why you’ll see products on shelves like Velveeta and Kraft Singles that taste like cheese but have labels like “pasteurized processed cheese food.”

Though it doesn’t sound very appetizing, it’s completely legal to make cheese this way, as long as its label calls out that it’s processed cheese, not real cheese. Hopefully knowing where it really comes from doesn’t ruin Kraft Singles for you, but despite its less-than-appetizing origins, it’s still one of the easiest cheese to toss on your sandwich when you’re craving an epic cheese pull.

The Dirty Truth About Kraft Singles You Might Not Want to Know


3. Their ingredient list reads like a science experiment

Cheese shouldn’t need an ingredient list, because it should just be made of cheese. From milk. The end. Meanwhile, Kraft Singles has 17 – yeah, 17 – ingredients.

The Kraft singles ingredient list consists of cheddar cheese, whey, water, protein concentrate, milk, sodium citrate, calcium phosphate, milkfat, gelatin, salt, sodium phosphate, lactic acid (as a preservative), annatto and paprika extract (for color), enzymes, Vitamin A palmitate, cheese culture, and Vitamin D3. Phew.

4. They’re misleading

Not only are they pretending to be cheese, but Kraft Singles packages recently got slapped with a label from The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that read “Kids Eat Right.” What’s the problem here? Well, the label makes it seem like AND is saying that Kraft Singles are a healthy option for kids.

But that’s not the case. What it actually means is that Kraft Singles supports AND’s “Kids Eat Right” program. But it sure won’t look that way to supermarket shoppers, and while Singles do have a ton of calcium, the negatives outweigh the positives.

5. They were created to be preserved and factory-made

Sure, single-wrapped slices might seem all clean and neat. But basically, Kraft Singles were invented to never expire. At first, because they looked perfect, people were all for buying them. The Singles didn’t curl, all the slices were the same thickness, and they didn’t get hard – but that’s because they weren’t real cheese .

When Kraft Singles became popular after World War II, a lot of food production was industrial. People valued that their cheese came from a factory. Standardized meant high-quality.

Nowadays, we know better. We eat clean, we avoid processed foods, we detox, and we stay away from long ingredient lists. My advice? If you’re eating a simple food like cheese or fruit, the ingredient list should only have one item– the food itself. Pick another cheese next time you’re getting hangry.

FAKING IT How takeaways are selling you pizzas topped with FAKE CHEESE


TAKEAWAY pizzas are being topped with fake cheese and ham that is actually TURKEY, an investigation into the popular easy dinner option has revealed.

Instead of the real ingredients, pizzas are being covered in a non-dairy oil substitute with one Hawaiian ham and pineapple pizza tested found to not contain any ham at all.

The investigation, conducted by the Trading Standards Officers, involved purchasing 40 pizzas from small or independent takeaways across Warwickshire.

Their toppings were then tested to see if the ingredients matched the description – with one in four failing the test.

Five pizzas described as being covered in cheese actually contained “analogue cheese” – a oil substitute – while one Mozarella pizza only had 20 per cent Mozarella – with the remaining cheese cheddar.

Another five pizzas were found to have fake meat – with some purported to be pepperoni pizzas actually found to be covered in beef or chicken instead of pork.

Cured turkey was also a substitute for pork.

Warwickshire County Councillor John Horner, Portfolio Holder for Community Safety said: “Consumers often pay a premium for take-away products and should be able to have confidence that the foods they buy and consume are correctly described.”

The Formulation of Cheese Analogue from Sweet Corn Extract



Analogue cheese made from sweet corn extract was expected to fulfill the people’s need for cheese and as alternative cheese made from cow’s milk. The use of maltodextrin as a filler and citric acid as an acidulant was expected to improve the characteristics of corn cheese. The aims of this article were to (1) determine the optimum concentration of maltodextrin, papain, and citric acid in order to produce corn milk-based cheese analogue with the best characteristics; (2) determine the characteristics of cheese analogue produced using the optimum concentration. The research design used in this study was Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on Central Composite Design (CCD) with three factors: citric acid concentration (0.12%, 0.16%, and 0.20%), commercial papain (0.026%, 0.030%, and 0.034%), and maltodextrin (10%, 15%, and 20%). The optimum formula to produce cheese analogue with the highest protein content and yield was with the addition of 0.20% citric acid, 0.029% papain, and 20% maltodextrin. The cheese analogue produced from the optimum formula had moisture content of 61.590%, yield of 17.512%, total dissolved solids of 19.00°Brix, dissolved protein of 19.837%, acidity (pH) of 5.4, and fat of 6.976%. The sensory characteristics of cheese analogue spread from sweet corn extract are similar to those of cheese from cow’s milk; i.e., it had a yellowish-white color, distinctive aroma of cheese, no sour taste, and soft texture and was easy to spread. Therefore, it was possible to explore the sweet corn as ingredient of spread cheese that has low fat content.